Book Review: The Oxford Handbook of the History of Physics

The Oxford Handbook of the History of Physics

The Oxford Handbook of the History of Physics edited by Jed Z. Buchwald and Robert Fox

ISBN-13: 9780199696253
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Published: January 1, 2014

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View details and find a place to buy or borrow at Google Books.

Reading note: Started on May 19, 2017 and finished on March 15, 2019.

When this beautiful and hefty book arrived in my office in May 2017, I knew I had to read it. I enjoy reading history and I also have an interest in modern physics. One of these two interests was satisfied by this book, but the other was left disappointed. I set the book aside many times to read other books, which is why it took so long before I finished it.

Most of the book covered “classical” physics, the period that can roughly be though of as predating quantum theory and relativity. Classical physics topics covered include Galileo’s mechanics, Newton’s Principia and Opticks, fluids, mechanics, electricity and magnetism, thermodynamics, energy, electromagnetism, electrodynamics, and side chapters on textbooks, medicine, and metrology.

While the book contains 976 pages (917 of content), Part IV (out of four) on Modern Physics doesn’t begin until page 719. Even then, the first chapter titled “Rethinking ‘Classical Physics’ ” is a discussion on the inability of physicists and historians to agree on when “modern physics” began. Modern physics topics include statistical mechanics, relativity, quantum physics, a tangential chapter on semiconductors, and finally cosmology. The first mention of dark matter doesn’t come until page 910; on page 913 the book finally mentions CERN; the Grand Unified Theory (GUT) is briefly mentioned on page 914; black holes on page 915; and string theory is quickly noted on page 918. Very little was written about the discovery of the atom and subatomic particles! I don’t remember the terms quark or Higgs boson stated at all. Physicists such as Rutherford, Fermi, Feynman, and Hawking were barely covered or not mentioned at all! Perhaps Part IV could be pulled from this book and used as the beginning of a second volume on modern physics.

The 29 chapters read like 29 individual papers written by nearly as many different authors, which they are. Due to this fact and the varying subject matter, the writing style and difficulty varied greatly from chapter to chapter. Some chapters were easily read and could be comprehended by anyone, even those without a physics or engineering background. Other chapters were very difficult—some including calculus and differential equations—which were difficult for me, even with a degree in electrical engineering. Some had useful diagrams and photographs while others contained only text.

Here is an example of one difficult paragraph from page 781:

Whereas Boltzmann had reasoned in terms of temporal probabilities for a single system, Maxwell adopted the ‘statistical specification’ of a system, in which the equilibrium properties of a thermodynamic system are to be compared not with those of a single mechanical system but with those of a stationary ensemble of such systems. He proved the stationarity of the microcanonical ensemble for any Hamiltonian dynamics and derived the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution and energy equipartition from this ensemble. But he did not explain why stationary ensembles represented the thermal properties of macroscopic bodies. He regarded this property as a plausible assumption, to be tested by experiment and perhaps to be justified someday by ergodicity.

Did you get that? Probably not, if you don’t have a PhD in physics.

However, there are many non-technical chapters scattered throughout the book. The most layman reader-friendly was Chapter 10 titled “Physics on Show: Entertainment, Demonstration, and Research in the Long Eighteenth Century”. If you want a good history of scientific instruments and instrument makers, there is a book-within-a-book here. You could simply read the following three chapters for a great overview:

4. Physics and the Instrument-Makers, 1550-1700
11. Instruments and Instrument-Makers, 1700-1850
20. From Workshop to Factory: The Evolution of the Instrument-Making Industry, 1850-1930

The book did have several strong points. Many chapters wove the history of physics with the world at-large, demonstrating how politics and wars affected scientific inquiry and cooperation. While we see the building of theories on top of each other (the “standing on the shoulders of giants”), the book also showed how competition pushed scientists to make their discoveries. Also, the book presented an excellent history on the caloric theory of heat, which—because it was proven to be false—is not taught in contemporary textbooks. Although not falling directly under physics, the chapter “Physics and Metrology” provided an interesting look at the rare topic of metrology, “the science and technology of standards of measurement” and how it is both a product of physics and an essential tool for its advancement.

For Further Reading

As I read through the history, I compiled a list of written works referred to as important and influential. These are original physics papers and publications containing the actual theories and experiments. It provides a great source for further reading to learn in-depth about any major physics discoveries.

Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems by Galileo (1632)

Discorsi by Galileo (1638)

Le Monde by René Descartes (1629-1633)

Discours de la Méthode by René Descartes (1637)

Principles of Philosophy by René Descartes (1644)

Horologium Oscillitorium by Christiaan Huygens (1673)

Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy by Isaac Newton (1687, 1713, 1726)

Opticks, Or a Treatise of the Reflexions, Refractions, Inflexions and Colours of Light by Isaac Newton (1704)

Théorie des phénomènes électro-dynamiques: uniquement déduite de l’expérience by André-Marie Ampère (1826)

Theory of the Motion of Solid or Rigid Bodies by Leonhard Euler (1765)

Hydraulics by Johann Bernoulli (1742)

Mécanique céleste by Pierre Simon Laplace (1799-1825, 1829)

Réflexions sur la puissance motrice du feu by Sadi Carnot (1824)

Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism by James Clerk Maxwell (1873)

Relativity: The Special and General Theory by Albert Einstein (1920)

Principles of Quantum Mechanics by Paul Dirac (1930)

The Physical Principles of the Quantum Theory by Werner Heisenberg (1930)

See This Review on Goodreads

The Oxford Handbook of the History of PhysicsThe Oxford Handbook of the History of Physics by Jed Z. Buchwald

My rating: 3 of 5 stars

Jeeves and Wooster Collection

 

Jeeves and Wooster collection (all)

I have long been a fan of P. G. Wodehouse and his Jeeves and Wooster series.  In the US it was always difficult to buy these books—even though most of the stories were published here, sometimes before the UK release.  I already owned Life with Jeeves, a compilation of three books: The Inimitable Jeeves; Very Good, Jeeves!; and Right Ho, Jeeves.  But the only other Jeeves book I found in stores was The Jeeves Omnibus, a compilation of Carry On, Jeeves; The Inimitable Jeeves; and Stiff Upper Lip, Jeeves which I didn’t buy because I already had one of the three titles.

Late last year (2015) I decided to spring for the entire set from the UK.  I already had compiled a list of titles and so I signed on to Amazon UK one evening.  Ordering was easy and the books were due to be “dispatched” in short order for a January 2016 delivery.  I chose to have the books shipped together to save money.  The entire order cost £173.53 (£121.70 plus £51.83 shipping) or $271.29 for 16 books.  Worth every pound and pence.

Amazon UK’s service was excellent.  Twice I received a surprise package at my door containing books with the message: “We’ve sent this portion of your order separately at no extra charge to give you the speediest service possible.”  Perhaps Amazon intentionally overestimates the shipping time, but I received all of my books well before the estimated date.  They crossed the Pond and arrived in perfect condition.

Sure, I could have saved the shipping cost and bought the ebooks.  But where’s the fun in that?  I’d much rather look at this matching set of physical books.  Wodehouse books certainly fall under “Buy–Print” on my “Book Worthiness Scale”.

P. G. Wodehouse is one of only two authors who can consistently make me laugh out loud (the other being Douglas Adams).  The plots are a bit repetitive if you read the stories back-to-back within a short period of time.  They were published months apart and weren’t expected to be read in one sitting.

I have read only the three books in Life with Jeeves and the 34 stories in The World of Jeeves.  I’ll dole out the other books in-between serious reading whenever I need a laugh.  I’ll write more once I’ve read a few more books in the series.

If you’re interested in sampling some Jeeves and Wooster, you can download My Man Jeeves and Right Ho, Jeeves for free.

Jeeves and Wooster collection (set)